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Types of Washers and their Applications

January 7, 2020

When getting pieces of machinery together, there are certain tools necessary to keep them tightened as close as possible. Moreover, some tools can maintain the tightness of the objects by spreading the load distribution evenly. One of the tools that can distribute the load of objects is washers.

A washer is a disk-shaped thin plate with a hole in its centre. They are used to distribute load and are applied as spacers, springs, pre-loading screws, and as an element to reduce vibration. These functionalities are common to all types of washers. However, there are certain differences when it comes to applications, appearance, and others. As of now, there are three types of washers: plain washer, spring washer, and lock washer.

Plain Washer

Through their design, the distribution property of plain washers can prevent any sort of damage to the assembled surfaces. There are five kinds of a plain washer. For starters, flat washer or type-A plain washer has a thin and flat surface with a hole in the centre. This type of washer provides support to a smaller head screw. Alternatively, the fender washer has a larger outside diameter compared to its inside diameter. Unlike flat washers, fender washers can deal with load at a larger area. Fender washers can be used in automobiles, plumbing, sheet metal applications, and many more.

The third kind of plain washer is a shoulder washer. This type of washer, which is available in fibre-glass, nylon, and other types of material, is used to insulate screw, wire, or any other part of an assembly. C-washers, on the other hand, are designed to provide a sliding action on a bolt or shaft. Lastly, the countersunk washer has a 90 or 120 degree countersunk on top. This type of washer can be used as a flat washer for flat head countersunk screws.

Spring Washer

Spring washers share a different type of load distribution. They can provide load to fasteners during vibration or shock. Spring washers also have five types. First, the Belleville or conical spring washers support a high load with small deflection, which makes them suitable to assemblies exposed to thermal expansion and contraction conditions. Another kind of spring washers is crescent or curved spring washers. They only support small loads but have a wide deflection range. These spring washers can be applied in flexible and load-cycling products.

The third kind of spring washers is dome spring washers. These washers have ground curves that support high load capacity with relatively small deflection range. Next on the list of spring washers are the finger spring washers. Mostly made of carbon steel, they are mainly used to negate noise, excess wear, and vibrations of an assembly. Last but not least, wave spring washers are used mainly as cushion springs or spacers on a shaft. These washers have a moderate load capacity and deflection rage. 

Lock Washer

From preventing damages to shock, lock washers are made to prevent fasteners that tend to rotate from loosening. These washers prevent unscrewing rotation when the assembly is used. There are three types of lock washer. One, the external tooth lock washers have a teeth strut action that prevents a nut or bolt head from loosening. This type of lock washers also provides maximum torsional resistance when the teeth bite into a mating surface. 

Another kind of lock washer is internal tooth lock washers. These washers prevent a nut or bolt head from loosening through the use of the same teeth strut action from the previous kind of lock washer. The third kind of lock washer is a helical or split lock washer. Helical lock washers work by increasing the preload on screws during the tightening action. This action protects an assembly against loosening during vibration and corrosion. 

If you want to know more about washers and their types, visit us now at eBolts Online Store. We can provide you all types of washers to suit your needs and preferences. 

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